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A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file. Binary files are usually thought of as being a sequence of byteswhich means binary image data binary digits bits are grouped in eights. Binary files typically contain bytes that are intended to be interpreted as something other than text characters. Compiled computer programs are typical examples; indeed, compiled applications are sometimes referred to, particularly by programmers, as binaries.

But binary files can also mean that they contain images, binary image data, compressed versions of other files, etc. Some binary files contain headersblocks of metadata used by a computer program to interpret the data in the file.

The header often contains binary image data signature or binary image data number which can identify binary image data format.

For example, a GIF file can contain multiple images, and headers are used to identify and describe each block of image data. If a binary file does not contain any headers, it may be called a flat binary file. To send binary files through certain systems such as email that do not allow all data values, they are often translated into a binary image data text representation using, for example, Base The increased size may be countered by lower-level link compression, as the resulting text data will have about as much less entropy as it has increased size, so the actual data transferred in this scenario would likely be very close to the size of the original binary data.

See Binary-to-text encoding for more on this subject. A hex editor or viewer may be used to view file data as a sequence of hexadecimal or decimal, binary or Binary image data character values for corresponding bytes of a binary file.

If a binary file is opened binary image data a text editoreach group of eight bits will typically be translated as a single character, and the user will see a probably unintelligible display of textual characters. If the file is opened in some other application, that application will have its own use for each byte: Other type of viewers called 'word extractors' simply replace the unprintable characters with spaces revealing only the human-readable text.

This type of view is useful for quick inspection of a binary file in order to find passwords in games, find hidden text in non-text files and recover corrupted documents. If the file is itself treated as an executable and run, then the operating system will attempt to interpret the file as a series of instructions in its machine language.

Standards are very important to binary files. For example, a binary file interpreted by the ASCII character set will result in text being displayed. A custom application can interpret the file differently: Binary itself is meaningless, until such time as an executed algorithm defines what should be done with each bit, byte, word or block.

Thus, just examining the binary and attempting to match it binary image data known formats can lead to the wrong conclusion as to what it actually represents. This fact can be used in steganographywhere an algorithm interprets a binary data file differently to reveal hidden content. Without the algorithm, it binary image data impossible to tell that hidden content exists. Two files that are binary compatible will have the same sequence of zeros and ones in the data portion of the file.

The file header, however, may be different. The term is binary image data most commonly to state that data files produced by one application are exactly the same as data files produced by another application. For example, some software companies produce applications for Windows and the Macintosh that binary image data binary compatible, which means that a file produced in a Windows environment is interchangeable with a file produced binary image data a Macintosh. This avoids many of the conversion problems caused by importing and exporting data.

One possible binary compatibility issue between different computers is the endianness of the computer. Some computers store the bytes in a file in a different order. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For double stars, see Binary star. For the CD image format, see Disk image. This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable binary image data. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

For binary code executable file compatibility, see Binary compatible. Open Close Read Write. File comparison File compression File manager Comparison of file managers File binary image data permissions File transfer File sharing File verification.

Retrieved from " https: Articles lacking sources from April All articles lacking sources. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last binary image data on 30 Octoberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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A binary image is a digital image that has only two possible values for each pixel. Typically, the two colors used for a binary image are black and white. The color used for the object s in the image is the foreground color while the rest of the image is the background color. Binary images are also called bi-level or two-level. This means that each pixel is stored as a single bit—i.

In Photoshop parlance, a binary image is the same as an image in "Bitmap" mode. Binary images often arise in digital image processing as masks or as the result of certain operations such as segmentation , thresholding , and dithering. A binary image can be stored in memory as a bitmap , a packed array of bits. Because of the small size of the image files, fax machine and document management solutions usually use this format.

Most binary images also compress well with simple run-length compression schemes. Binary images can be interpreted as subsets of the two-dimensional integer lattice Z 2 ; the field of morphological image processing was largely inspired by this view.

Considering only the central pixel, it is possible to define whether it remains set or unset, based on the surrounding pixels. Examples of such operations are thinning, dilating, finding branch points and endpoints, removing isolated pixels, shifting the image a pixel in any direction, and breaking H-connections.

Another class of operations is based on the notion of filtering with a structuring element. The structuring element is binary image, usually small, which is passed over the target image, in a similar manner to a filter in gray scale image processing.

Since the pixels can only have two values, the morphological operations are erosion any unset pixels within the structuring element cause the pixel to be unset and dilation any set pixels within the structuring element cause the pixel to be set.

Important operations are morphological opening and morphological closing which consist of erosion followed by dilation and dilation followed by erosion, respectively, using the same structuring element.

Opening tends to enlarge small holes, remove small objects, and separate objects. Closing retains small objects, removes holes, and joins objects. A very important characteristic of a binary image is the distance transform.

This gives the distance of every set pixel from the nearest unset pixel. The distance transform can be efficiently calculated. It allows efficient computation of Voronoi diagrams , where each pixel in an image is assigned to the nearest of a set of points. It also allows skeletonization, which differs from thinning in that skeletons allow recovery of the original image.

The distance transform is also useful for determining the center of the object, and for matching in image recognition. Another class of operations is gathering orientation-free metrics.

This is often important in image recognition where the orientation of the camera needs to be removed. Orientation-free metrics of a group of connected or surrounded pixels include the Euler number , the perimeter, the area, the compactness, the area of holes, the minimum radius, the maximum radius. Binary images are produced from color images by segmentation. Segmentation is the process of assigning each pixel in the source image to two or more classes.

If there are more than two classes then the usual result is several binary images. The simplest form of segmentation is probably Otsu's method which assigns pixels to foreground or background based on greyscale intensity.

Another method is the watershed algorithm. Edge detection also often creates a binary image with some pixels assigned to edge pixels, and is also a first step in further segmentation. Thinning or skeletonization produces binary images which consist of pixel-wide lines. The branchpoints and endpoints can then be extracted, and the image converted to a graph. This is important in image recognition, for example in optical character recognition.

The interpretation of the pixel's binary value is also device-dependent. Some systems interprets the bit value of 0 as black and 1 as white, while others reversed the meaning of the values. In the TWAIN standard PC interface for scanners and digital cameras , the first flavor is called vanilla and the reversed one chocolate.

Dithering is often used for displaying halftone images. Oversampled binary image sensor is a new image sensor that is reminiscent of traditional photographic film. Each pixel in the sensor has a binary response, giving only a one-bit quantized measurement of the local light intensity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Color depth 1-bit monochrome 8-bit grayscale 8-bit color or bit color high color bit color true color , , or bit color deep color Related Indexed color Palette RGB color model Web-safe color v t e.

This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. A photograph of a Neighborhood Watch sign in black and white binary.

Archived from the original on Working With Different Color Modes". Working in Different Color Modes". Selected Papers on Digital Halftoning. Retrieved from " https: Color depths Image processing Digital geometry 2 number.

Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references. Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 13 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.