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The firm is currently the second-largest crude oil producer in Indonesia behind the US-based Chevron Pacific Indonesia. InDutch assets in petroleum were nationalised, from which Permina was founded as a state-owned oil monopoly, headed by Lieutenant-General Ibnu Sutowo. To meet this goal Permina established the Oil Academy in Bandung at Oil Academy's curriculum pertains to the technical aspects of the oil industry, and the graduates turned into the main forces in Pertamin which later transformed to Pertamina.
Inthe Congress enacted a policy that the mining of Indonesian oil and ground gases are only permitted for the state, through a state-administered company. Pertamin, established inwas responsible for the administration, management and controlling of the exploration and production. The policy was short lived. An agreement between the state and foreign companies was affirmed that gradually, oil refinery manufactures and other assets in marketing and distribution were to be sold to Indonesia within five to fifteen years.
Into consolidate oil and gas industry for its management, exploration, marketing and distribution, Permina and Pertamin merged and became PN. It continued to do little drilling itself, but made production-sharing agreements with foreign companies. Its assets included seven refineriesoil terminalstankersother vessels and an airline. It was also active in cementfertiliserliquid natural gassteelhospitalsreal estatea rice estate, and telecommunications.
Much of this revenue was used by Sutowo to expand Pertamina's interests far beyond oil production to include investments in oil tankers, steel and construction. Pertamina initially provided a fiscal lift to the hopes of Indonesia's development planners. For President Suharto and other members of the ruling elite revenue from Pertamina was "an ongoing source of funding" without accountability. At each stage of the transaction chain somebody was getting a percentage If accidents occurred, as in when eighty impoverished people died Inthe government's ability to borrow money from overseas was constrained, and Pertamina was no longer providing revenues to the state.
Instead, the massive enterprise turned out not to be direktorat marketing and trading pertamina money, but compiling exponentially large losses. In FebruaryPertamina could no longer pay its American and Canadian creditors.
This debt was equivalent to approximately thirty percent of Indonesia's GNP at the time. The man most responsible for the collapse, Bruce Rappaportwas never charged. Ibnu Sutowo and his direktorat marketing and trading pertamina were among the richest and most powerful in Indonesia, into the 21st century.
Human rights observers have long expressed concerns about Indonesia's hostility to labour unions. According to the Multinational Monitor: In Pertamina legally became PT.
Pertamina Perseroas per the enactment of Government Regulation No. Pertamina is now under the coordinator of the Direktorat marketing and trading pertamina Minister of State-owned Enterprises. With its direktorat marketing and trading pertamina into a limited liability companyPertamina has become a business entity with the main target of making a profit. During the s, untilthe president director of Pertamina was Ibnu Sutowoa well-known figure in Indonesia.
Since then, there have been a number of president directors. Recent president directors have included the following:. Martiono Hadianto — Before his appointment as president director of Pertamina, Martiono was briefly Finance Director of the state-owned airline company Garuda Indonesia . He was appointed as president director of Pertamina by president Abdurrahman Wahid in Subsequent to his resignation inthere was controversy surrounding decisions taken in Pertamina during his period as president director concerning the purchase of giant tankers for the transport of oil.
Widya Purnama — Widya Purnama was appointed from outside of the energy sector, formerly having been president since of the Indonesian telecommunications company PT Indosat. Karen Agustiawan — In February it was announced that Karen Agustiawan would become president director of Pertamina for a direktorat marketing and trading pertamina term.
It was said at the time that she had plans to teach in Direktorat marketing and trading pertamina University in the United States. Dwi Soetjipto In Novemberthe new president of Indonesia Joko Widodo announced a major reorganisation of the board of Pertamina as part of a series of reform measures for the energy sector. A new president director, Dwi Soetjipto, was appointed along with a number of new members to the board.
The appointment of Dwi Soetjipto, previously president director of the major state-owned cement firm PT Semen Indonesia, attracted media attention because unlike most previous president directors of Pertamina, he had little previous experience in the oil sector.
Elia Massa Manik in Marchafter Soetjipto was dismissed due to leadership issues, the Board appointed Manik who had served as president director of Elnusa, a Pertamina subsidiary, from to Pertamina has not built any new refineries since the Balongan refinery was opened in West Java in the mids.
Currently Pertamina owns six oil refineries which have a total combined capacity of around direktorat marketing and trading pertamina million bopd barrels of oil per day: By world standards, none of Indonesia's refineries are large. The world's largest refinery, at Jamnagar in India, has a production capacity of over 1, bopd.
As a rule of thumb, refineries need to produce at leastbopd to reach reasonable international standards of efficiency. In addition to the refineries which Pertamina owns, Pertamina has invested in two operating companies which manage output from LNG plants.
They closed down due to lack direktorat marketing and trading pertamina feed gas inand now Arun is used an LNG import terminal. During and early it was announced several times that there were plans to build two more large fuel refineries, each with a capacity of aroundbopd, perhaps in Balongan, West Java or, alternatively, in Bontang, East Kalimantan and in Tuban, East Java.
The first facility was planned to be built direktorat marketing and trading pertamina Pertamina in partnership with Kuwait Petroleumwhile direktorat marketing and trading pertamina second was expected be built by Pertamina in co-operation with Saudi Aramco.
At the same time, the government said that there were plans for yet direktorat marketing and trading pertamina different refinery project which would be constructed solely by Pertamina and funded by the state. The crude oil for this alternative project was expected to be supplied from Iraq.
Pertamina also has two gas reserves and a petrochemical company. Pertamina's products include a great variety of fuels, chemicals, additives, and retail products. Pertamina the largest distribution network of petroleum products gas stationsetc. Along with the gas stations, Pertamina also have a convenience store chain, integrated to their gas stations. PT Pertamina EP PEP is engaged in managing the upstream oil and gas production through a more manageable exploration and exploitation activities.
Adding to that, PEP has been undertaking other supporting businesses, which have been intended to back up the main business directly or indirectly. Pertamina EP Working Areas of The working areas are managed through own operation and partnership co-operation. Pertamina EP Working Areas consist of five assets. The company undertakes gas transportation, trading and processing.
These permit and exclusive rights complemented the business permit that had been issued previously in September By obtaining a business license and special rights, PT Pertamina Gas now has a regulatory basis to play the principal role in the gas business in Indonesia. PGE was founded on 12 December This Pertamina subsidiary carries out geothermal exploration and exploitation in 15 working areas WKP in Indonesia, namely: The services provided comprise drilling, workover activities, and drilling services that use a Daily Rate direktorat marketing and trading pertamina Integrated Drilling Management MPT system for oil, gas, and geothermal wells.
PHE is one of the Upstream Directorate subsidiaries working in the oil and gas upstream business, and is also an upstream business vehicle for direktorat marketing and trading pertamina the domestic and overseas co-operation portfolio in the form of: Rio HaryantoIndonesia's first Formula One driver, was sponsored by Pertamina throughout his junior career and played a pivotal role in securing his drive with the Manor Racing team in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Stanford University Press,p. A History of Modern Indonesia, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, p. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the s. In zero direktorat marketing and trading pertamina, reputation alone exists'The Jakarta Post11 December Challenges male domination of oil and gas industry'The Jakarta Post direktorat marketing and trading pertamina, 8 February Dahlan'The Jakarta Post18 August Retrieved 6 April Azwar, ' RI oil: Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 29 January Acronyms Oil shale gas Peak oil mitigation timing People Petrocurrency Petrodollar recycling Shale band Shale gas Swing producer Unconventional oil heavy crude oil sands oil shale.
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