‘Predatory’ open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics

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Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading special notations explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied. Using more options generally further limits the output e. Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as --reverse. Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the specified pattern warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading expression.

With more warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading one --grep-reflogcommits whose reflog message matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless --walk-reflogs is in use. Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern regular expression. When --show-notes is in effect, the message from the notes is matched as if it were part of the log message.

Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grepinstead of ones that match at least one. Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional compile-time dependency. Do not print commits with more than one parent. Show only commits which have at least or at most that many parent commits. Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

Cannot be combined with --bisect. If pattern lacks '? Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the next --all--branches--tags--remotesor --glob option other options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns.

By default, all working trees will be examined by the following options when there are more than one see git-worktree[1]: This option forces them to examine the current working tree only. Cannot be combined with --first-parent. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the result. For example, if you have two branches, A and Ba usual way to list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right see the example below in the description of the --left-right option.

With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output. List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference, i. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact list.

Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones. With --pretty format other than oneline for obvious reasonsthis causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line, show the timestamp in the format requested by --date. This option cannot be combined with --reverse. But there are two parts of 'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same i. Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge. When given a range of commits to display e. We shall call commits that modify foo!

In a diff filtered for foothey look different and equal, respectively. In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the differences between simplification settings.

We assume that you are filtering for a file warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading in this commit graph:. The horizontal line of history AQ warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading taken to be the first parent of each merge. I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents asdf'', and a file quux exists with contents quux''.

Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is! B contains the same change as A. D sets foo to baz''. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to foobarbaz''; i. E changes quux to xyzzy'', and its merge P combines the strings to quux xyzzy''.

X is an independent root commit that added a new file sideand Y modified it. The following settings are available. Otherwise, follow all parents. Root commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is! This mode differs from the default in one point: Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is!

In the example, we get. EC and B were all walked, but only B was! Ordinary commits are only included if they are! Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. Compare to --full-history without rewriting above.

Note that without --full-historythis still simplifies merges: First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting does see above. Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to the following rules:. Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent. The effect of this is best shown warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading way of comparing to --full-history with parent rewriting.

The example turns into:. Note the major differences in NPand Q over --full-history:. Still, N remained because it is! Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the from'' and to'' commits in the given commit range.

M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of Mbut excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of 'D. M' that are actually descendants of Di. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the 'D. M' range, it results in:. The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags.

Commits are marked as! TREESAME in other words, kept after history simplification rules described above if 1 they are referenced by tags, or 2 they change the contents of the paths given on the command line. Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.

Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order. Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history intermixed. With --topo-orderthey would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3 1 ; some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid showing warning ref is excluded by the rev-list options trading commits from two parallel development track mixed together.

Output the commits chosen to be shown see Commit Limiting section above in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs. For internal use only. Prefilter object traversal at promisor boundary. This is used with partial clone. Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors. This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument unsorted is given, the commits are shown in the order they were given on the command line.

Otherwise if sorted or no argument was giventhe commits are shown in reverse chronological order by commit time. Cannot be combined with --graph. Instead of showing the full byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix. Show the full byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and those options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.

The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in Xwe will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original commit may be copied to the output.

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Those filters can modify each tree e. Otherwise, all information including original commit times or merge information will be preserved. The command will only rewrite the positive refs mentioned in the command line e.

If you specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be useful in the future for compensating for some Git bugs or such, therefore such a usage is permitted. If you have any grafts or replacement refs defined, running this command will make them permanent.

The rewritten history will have different object names for all the objects and will not converge with the original branch. You will not be able to easily push and distribute the rewritten branch on top of the original branch. Please do not use this command if you do not know the full implications, and avoid using it anyway, if a simple single commit would suffice to fix your problem.

Always verify that the rewritten version is correct: Reportedly the speedup is very noticeable. The filters are applied in the order as listed below. A map function is available that takes an "original sha1 id" argument and outputs a "rewritten sha1 id" if the commit has been already rewritten, and "original sha1 id" otherwise; the map function can return several ids on separate lines if your commit filter emitted multiple commits. This is not a real filter executed for each commit but a one time setup just before the loop.

Therefore no commit-specific variables are defined yet. Functions or variables defined here can be used or modified in the following filter steps except the commit filter, for technical reasons. Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory. The result will contain that directory and only that as its project root.

Implies Remap to ancestor. This filter may be used if you only need to modify the environment in which the commit will be performed. This is the filter for rewriting the tree and its contents. The argument is evaluated in shell with the working directory set to the root of the checked out tree. The new tree is then used as-is new files are auto-added, disappeared files are auto-removed - neither.

This is the filter for rewriting the index. It is similar to the tree filter but does not check out the tree, which makes it much faster. Frequently used with git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch For hairy cases, see git-update-index[1].

It will receive the parent string on stdin and shall output the new parent string on stdout. The parent string is in the format described in git-commit-tree[1]: This is the filter for rewriting the commit messages.

The argument is evaluated in the shell with the original commit message on standard input; its standard output is used as the new commit message. This is the filter for performing the commit. The commit id is expected on stdout. As a special extension, the commit filter may emit multiple commit ids; in that case, the rewritten children of the original commit will have all of them as parents.

You can use the map convenience function in this filter, and other convenience functions, too. If you want that, use git rebase instead.

This is the filter for rewriting tag names. When passed, it will be called for every tag ref that points to a rewritten object or to a tag object which points to a rewritten object. The original tag name is passed via standard input, and the new tag name is expected on standard output. The original tags are not deleted, but can be overwritten; use "--tag-name-filter cat" to simply update the tags.

In this case, be very careful and make sure you have the old tags backed up in case the conversion has run afoul. Nearly proper rewriting of tag objects is supported. If the tag has a message attached, a new tag object will be created with the same message, author, and timestamp.

If the tag has a signature attached, the signature will be stripped. It is by definition impossible to preserve signatures. The reason this is "nearly" proper, is because ideally if the tag did not change points to the same object, has the same name, etc. That is not the case, signatures will always be removed, buyer beware. There is also no support for changing the author or timestamp or the tag message for that matter. Tags which point to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.

Some filters will generate empty commits that leave the tree untouched. This option instructs git-filter-branch to remove such commits if they have exactly one or zero non-pruned parents; merge commits will therefore remain intact. Use this option to set the namespace where the original commits will be stored. Use this option to set the path to the temporary directory used for rewriting.

When applying a tree filter, the command needs to temporarily check out the tree to some directory, which may consume considerable space in case of large projects. By default it does this in the. This option will cause the mapping from old to new objects to be loaded from named branch upon startup and saved as a new commit to that branch upon exit, enabling incremental of large trees.

Arguments for git rev-list. All positive refs included by these options are rewritten. You may also specify options such as --all , but you must use -- to separate them from the git filter-branch options. By using git-rev-list[1] arguments, e. However, positive refs on the command line are distinguished: For this purpose, they are instead rewritten to point at the nearest ancestor that was not excluded. Suppose you want to remove a file containing confidential information or copyright violation from all commits:.

However, if the file is absent from the tree of some commit, a simple rm filename will fail for that tree and commit. Thus you may instead want to use rm -f filename as the script. Using --index-filter with git rm yields a significantly faster version. Like with using rm filename , git rm --cached filename will fail if the file is absent from the tree of a commit.

If you want to "completely forget" a file, it does not matter when it entered history, so we also add --ignore-unmatch:. Thus you can, e. Note the -- that separates filter-branch options from revision options, and the --all to rewrite all branches and tags. To set a commit which typically is at the tip of another history to be the parent of the current initial commit, in order to paste the other history behind the current history:.

Note that this assumes history with a single root that is, no merge without common ancestors happened. If this is not the case, use:. The shift magic first throws away the tree id and then the -p parameters. Note that this handles merges properly! In case Darl committed a merge between P1 and P2, it will be propagated properly and all children of the merge will become merge commits with P1,P2 as their parents instead of the merge commit.

NOTE the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you want to throw out changes together with the commits, you should use the interactive mode of git rebase. You can rewrite the commit log messages using --msg-filter.

For example, git svn-id strings in a repository created by git svn can be removed this way:. If you need to add Acked-by lines to, say, the last 10 commits none of which is a merge , use this command:. For example, if you found out that your commits have the wrong identity due to a misconfigured user. To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will point to the top-most revision that a git rev-list of this range will print.

People expect the resulting repository to be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to actually make it smaller, because Git tries hard not to lose your objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:.

You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved over its lifetime. You really filtered all refs: Then there are two ways to get a smaller repository.

A safer way is to clone, that keeps your original intact. Clone it with git clone file: The clone will not have the removed objects.

Note that cloning with a plain path just hardlinks everything! This is a very destructive approach, so make a backup or go back to cloning it. You have been warned. Remove the original refs backed up by git-filter-branch: For those operations you may want to consider The BFG Repo-Cleaner , a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different characteristics:.

Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly once. The BFG, unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed within your history.