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Those filters can modify each tree e. Otherwise, all information including original commit times or merge information will be preserved. The command will only rewrite the positive refs mentioned in the command line e.
If you specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be useful in the future for compensating for some Git bugs or such, therefore such a usage is permitted. If you have any grafts or replacement refs defined, running this command will make them permanent.
The rewritten history will have different object names for all the objects and will not converge with the original branch. You will not be able to easily push and distribute the rewritten branch on top of the original branch. Please do not use this command if you do not know the full implications, and avoid using it anyway, if a simple single commit would suffice to fix your problem.
Always verify that the rewritten version is correct: Reportedly the speedup is very noticeable. The filters are applied in the order as listed below. A map function is available that takes an "original sha1 id" argument and outputs a "rewritten sha1 id" if the commit has been already rewritten, and "original sha1 id" otherwise; the map function can return several ids on separate lines if your commit filter emitted multiple commits. This is not a real filter executed for each commit but a one time setup just before the loop.
Therefore no commit-specific variables are defined yet. Functions or variables defined here can be used or modified in the following filter steps except the commit filter, for technical reasons. Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory. The result will contain that directory and only that as its project root.
Implies Remap to ancestor. This filter may be used if you only need to modify the environment in which the commit will be performed. This is the filter for rewriting the tree and its contents. The argument is evaluated in shell with the working directory set to the root of the checked out tree. The new tree is then used as-is new files are auto-added, disappeared files are auto-removed - neither.
This is the filter for rewriting the index. It is similar to the tree filter but does not check out the tree, which makes it much faster. Frequently used with git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch For hairy cases, see git-update-index.
It will receive the parent string on stdin and shall output the new parent string on stdout. The parent string is in the format described in git-commit-tree: This is the filter for rewriting the commit messages.
The argument is evaluated in the shell with the original commit message on standard input; its standard output is used as the new commit message. This is the filter for performing the commit. The commit id is expected on stdout. As a special extension, the commit filter may emit multiple commit ids; in that case, the rewritten children of the original commit will have all of them as parents.
You can use the map convenience function in this filter, and other convenience functions, too. If you want that, use git rebase instead.
This is the filter for rewriting tag names. When passed, it will be called for every tag ref that points to a rewritten object or to a tag object which points to a rewritten object. The original tag name is passed via standard input, and the new tag name is expected on standard output. The original tags are not deleted, but can be overwritten; use "--tag-name-filter cat" to simply update the tags.
In this case, be very careful and make sure you have the old tags backed up in case the conversion has run afoul. Nearly proper rewriting of tag objects is supported. If the tag has a message attached, a new tag object will be created with the same message, author, and timestamp.
If the tag has a signature attached, the signature will be stripped. It is by definition impossible to preserve signatures. The reason this is "nearly" proper, is because ideally if the tag did not change points to the same object, has the same name, etc. That is not the case, signatures will always be removed, buyer beware. There is also no support for changing the author or timestamp or the tag message for that matter. Tags which point to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
Some filters will generate empty commits that leave the tree untouched. This option instructs git-filter-branch to remove such commits if they have exactly one or zero non-pruned parents; merge commits will therefore remain intact. Use this option to set the namespace where the original commits will be stored. Use this option to set the path to the temporary directory used for rewriting.
When applying a tree filter, the command needs to temporarily check out the tree to some directory, which may consume considerable space in case of large projects. By default it does this in the. This option will cause the mapping from old to new objects to be loaded from named branch upon startup and saved as a new commit to that branch upon exit, enabling incremental of large trees.
Arguments for git rev-list. All positive refs included by these options are rewritten. You may also specify options such as --all , but you must use -- to separate them from the git filter-branch options. By using git-rev-list arguments, e. However, positive refs on the command line are distinguished: For this purpose, they are instead rewritten to point at the nearest ancestor that was not excluded. Suppose you want to remove a file containing confidential information or copyright violation from all commits:.
However, if the file is absent from the tree of some commit, a simple rm filename will fail for that tree and commit. Thus you may instead want to use rm -f filename as the script. Using --index-filter with git rm yields a significantly faster version. Like with using rm filename , git rm --cached filename will fail if the file is absent from the tree of a commit.
If you want to "completely forget" a file, it does not matter when it entered history, so we also add --ignore-unmatch:. Thus you can, e. Note the -- that separates filter-branch options from revision options, and the --all to rewrite all branches and tags. To set a commit which typically is at the tip of another history to be the parent of the current initial commit, in order to paste the other history behind the current history:.
Note that this assumes history with a single root that is, no merge without common ancestors happened. If this is not the case, use:. The shift magic first throws away the tree id and then the -p parameters. Note that this handles merges properly! In case Darl committed a merge between P1 and P2, it will be propagated properly and all children of the merge will become merge commits with P1,P2 as their parents instead of the merge commit.
NOTE the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you want to throw out changes together with the commits, you should use the interactive mode of git rebase. You can rewrite the commit log messages using --msg-filter.
For example, git svn-id strings in a repository created by git svn can be removed this way:. If you need to add Acked-by lines to, say, the last 10 commits none of which is a merge , use this command:. For example, if you found out that your commits have the wrong identity due to a misconfigured user. To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will point to the top-most revision that a git rev-list of this range will print.
People expect the resulting repository to be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to actually make it smaller, because Git tries hard not to lose your objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:.
You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved over its lifetime. You really filtered all refs: Then there are two ways to get a smaller repository.
A safer way is to clone, that keeps your original intact. Clone it with git clone file: The clone will not have the removed objects.
Note that cloning with a plain path just hardlinks everything! This is a very destructive approach, so make a backup or go back to cloning it. You have been warned. Remove the original refs backed up by git-filter-branch: For those operations you may want to consider The BFG Repo-Cleaner , a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different characteristics:.
Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly once. The BFG, unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed within your history.